As Oceans Alkalized, Life Developed Bones and Shells

A critical feature of many multicellular lifeforms on Earth are hard, biological structures, such as animal bones and snail shells that are made from minerals.

Multicellular organisms, such as animals, plants and fungi are all examples of eukaryotes, whose cells possess nuclei. The evolution of bio-mineralizationwas a key milestone in the history of eukaryotes and for Earth in general, since bio-mineral structures, such as coral reefs, have had a dramatic impact on the planet’s geology.

Yet, early signs of eukaryotic bio-mineralization have remained obscure in the fossil record, making it difficult to know the age and environmental circumstances in which these biological structures first emerged.


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